This document describes how we map the checklist data to Darwin Core. The source file for this document can be found here.

Load libraries:

library(tidyverse)      # To do data science
library(magrittr)       # To use %<>% pipes
library(here)           # To find files
library(janitor)        # To clean input data
library(readxl)         # To read Excel files
library(digest)         # To generate hashes
library(rgbif)          # To use GBIF services

Set file paths (all paths should be relative to this script):

# Raw files:
raw_data_file = "../data/raw/oo_30975.xlsx"

# Processed files:
dwc_taxon_file = "../data/processed/taxon.csv"
dwc_distribution_file = "../data/processed/distribution.csv"
dwc_profile_file = "../data/processed/speciesprofile.csv"

1 Read and pre-process raw data

Create a data frame raw_data from the source data:

# Read the source data:
raw_data <- read_excel(raw_data_file, sheet = "Registry")

Clean the data somewhat: remove empty rows if present

raw_data %<>%
  remove_empty("rows") %>%       # Remove empty rows
  clean_names()                  # Have sensible (lowercase) column names

1.1 Clean scientific names

The scientific name should be the name in lowest level taxonomic rank that can be determined, which is the species name (genus + specificEpithet) here. This information is a compilation of genus and species in raw_data. Before we assign a taxonID to these scientific names, we need to clean this information. We do this stepwise:

  1. Paste genus and species together in scientifcName
  2. Parse scientificName with the GBIF nameparser. This output of this function give us an impression of the quality of the generated scientificName (see further)
  3. Screen quality of scientificName on predefined criteria
  4. Generate scientificName_clean
  5. Generate genus_clean, species_clean and infraspecificEpithet_clean by the information provided by the nameparser function.

Paste genus and species into scientificName:

raw_data %<>% mutate(scientificName = paste(genus, species))

Parse names:

parsed_names <- parsenames(raw_data $ scientificName)

For the cleaning of the scientific names, we screen on the following criteria:

  • type(should be scientific) OR
  • parsed (should be TRUE) OR
  • parsedpartially (should be FALSE) OR
  • authorship (should be empty)
parsed_names %>%
  mutate(authorship_empty = case_when( ~ "NA",
    ! ~ "provided")) %>% 
  select(type, parsed, parsedpartially, authorship_empty) %>% 
  group_by_all() %>% 
  summarize(count = n())

All scientificNames for which type = SCIENTIFIC AND PARSED = TRUE AND parsedpartially = FALSE AND authorship_empty = NA will not be screened (6571 records) for cleaning. This is an overview of the remaining scientific names to be screened:

parsed_names %>%
  select(scientificname, genusorabove, specificepithet, infraspecificepithet, type, parsed, parsedpartially, authorship, rankmarker) %>% 
  filter(!(type == "SCIENTIFIC" & parsed == "TRUE" & parsedpartially == "FALSE" & %>% 

The decisions for the cleaning steps are summarized in this issue

For some scientific names, we need information on authorship to clean them, so we merge this information with the raw dataset:

# Select the necessary columns in `parsed_names`:
parsed_names %<>% select(scientificname, authorship) 

# Merge with raw_data:
raw_data %<>% bind_cols(parsed_names)

# Remove duplicate column
raw_data %<>% select(-scientificname) 

Generate scientificName_clean:

raw_data %<>% mutate(scientificName_clean = case_when(
  scientificName == "Brachyglottis x 'Sunshine'" ~ "Brachyglottis 'Sunshine'",
  scientificName == "Cotoneaster x 'Hybridus pendulus'" ~ "Cotoneaster 'Hybridus pendulus'",
  scientificName == "Fuchsia x 'Corallina'" ~ "Fuchsia 'Corallina'",
  scientificName == "Symphytum x 'Hidcote Blue'" ~ "Symphytum 'Hidcote Blue'",
  species == "agg." ~ genus,
  species == "sp." ~ genus,
  authorship == "Orientalis" ~ "Anchusa arvensis orientalis",
  authorship == "Italicum" ~ "Arum italicum italicum",
  authorship == "Officinalis" ~ "Asparagus officinalis officinalis",
  authorship == "Oleifera" ~ "Brassica rapa oleifera",
  authorship == "Rapa" ~ "Brassica rapa rapa",
  authorship == "Inermis" ~ "Bromus inermis inermis",
  authorship == "Glandulosa" ~ "Calamintha nepeta glandulosa",
  authorship == "Carpatica" ~ "Anthyllis vulneraria carpatica", ~ genus,
  scientificName == "Rosa Hollandica'" ~ "Rosa 'Hollandica'",
  scientificName == "Sedum Herbstfreude'" ~ "Sedum 'Herbstfreude'",
  species == "x" ~ genus,
  scientificName == "Lipeurus maculosusIschnocera" ~ "Lipeurus maculosus",
  species == "n.a." ~ genus,
  scientificName == "AseroÙ rubra" ~ "Asero rubra",
  scientificName == "Cuprocyparis x leylandii hyb." ~ "Cuprocyparis x leylandii",
  scientificName == "Larix x marschlinsii hyb." ~ "Larix x marschlinsii",
  scientificName == "Acrophyllum dentatum" & phylum_division == "Bryophyta" ~ "Achrophyllum dentatum",
  TRUE ~ scientificName

Several scientific names contain double whitespaces:

raw_data %>% select(scientificName_clean) %>% filter(str_detect(scientificName_clean, "\\s{2}"))

Clean these scientific names:

raw_data %<>% mutate(scientificName_clean = str_replace_all(scientificName_clean, "\\s{2}", " ")) 

We will now create genus_clean, species_clean and infraspecificEpithet_clean by applying the nameparser on scientificName_clean:

parsed_names_clean <- parsenames(raw_data$scientificName_clean)

Select required columns:

parsed_names_clean %<>% select(scientificname, type, genusorabove, specificepithet, infraspecificepithet, rankmarker) 

Merge parsed_names_clean with raw_data:

raw_data %<>% bind_cols(parsed_names_clean) 

# Remove duplicate column `scientificname`:
raw_data %<>% select(-scientificname) 

Rename column names:

raw_data %<>% rename(
  genus_clean = genusorabove,
  specificEpithet_clean = specificepithet,
  infraspecificEpithet_clean = infraspecificepithet

1.2 Create taxonID:

To uniquely identify a taxon in the taxon core and reference taxa in the extensions, we need a taxonID. Since we need it in all generated files, we generate it here in the raw data frame. It is a combination of dataset-shortname:taxon: and a hash based on a combination of scientificName_clean and phylum_division. We use this combination as one scientificName is associated with two different phyla (hemihomonym), i.e. Elachista can be both an algal species or a moth. As long as the scientific name + phylum combination doesn’t change, the ID will be stable.

# Vectorize the digest function (The digest() function isn't vectorized. So if you pass in a vector, you get one value for the whole vector rather than a digest for each element of the vector):
vdigest <- Vectorize(digest)

# Generate scientificName_phylum column to deal with hemihomonym issue:
raw_data %<>% mutate(scientificName_phylum = paste(scientificName_clean, phylum_division)) 

# Generate taxonID:
raw_data %<>% mutate(taxon_id = paste("rinse-registry-checklist", "taxon", vdigest(scientificName_phylum, algo="md5"), sep = ":"))

1.3 Further pre-processing:

Add prefix raw_ to all column names to avoid name clashes with Darwin Core terms:

colnames(raw_data) <- paste0("raw_", colnames(raw_data))

Preview data:

raw_data %>% head()

2 Create taxon core

taxon <- raw_data

2.1 Pre-processing

Some taxa in the checklist are duplicated, i.e. they are found in two rows instead of one (see this issue). This is because of two reasons:

  • most of these duplicated taxa have two contrasting distribution records which depend on the consulted resource (data based solely on DAISIE portal and data based on all sources).
  • In one particular case, i.e. for Elachista, this is a homonym problem.

In the taxon core, we only want one row per taxon. We want to keep the homonyms but remove the taxa which have two distribution records.

Identify the rownumbers of the duplicated taxa (exclude Elachista):

duplicated_taxa <- which(duplicated(taxon$raw_scientificName_clean) == TRUE & taxon$raw_genus != "Elachista")

Exclude these from the taxon core:

taxon %<>% slice(-duplicated_taxa)

2.2 Term mapping

Map the data to Darwin Core Taxon.

2.2.1 language

taxon %<>% mutate(language = "en")

2.2.2 license

Although the source data are published under the Open Database License, we have the permission to pulish the checklist under the CC0 waiver.

taxon %<>% mutate(license = "")

2.2.3 rightsHolder

taxon %<>% mutate(rightsHolder = "University of Cambridge")

2.2.4 datasetID

taxon %<>% mutate(datasetID = "")

2.2.5 institutionCode

taxon %<>% mutate(institutionCode = "University of Cambridge")

2.2.6 accessRights

taxon %<>% mutate(accesRights = "") 

2.2.7 datasetName

taxon %<>% mutate(datasetName = "RINSE - Registry of non-native species in the Two Seas region countries (Great Britain, France, Belgium and the Netherlands)")

2.2.8 taxonID

taxon %<>% mutate(taxonID = raw_taxon_id)

2.2.9 scientificName

taxon %<>% mutate(scientificName = raw_scientificName_clean)

2.2.10 kingdom

Information on the kingdoms is not available in the raw data. However, we can derive it form the field raw_phylum_division using rgbif.

For this, we need to save all phyla in a separate dataframe:

phylum <- taxon %>% distinct(raw_phylum_division)

We remove Vira from the list as this is there’s no kingdom for this group.

phylum %<>% filter(raw_phylum_division != "Vira") 

Select kingdkom using rgbif:

phylum %<>%
  rowwise() %>%
  mutate(kingdom = name_usage(name = raw_phylum_division, return = "data") %>% 
  select(kingdom) %>% 
  filter(! %>%
  count(kingdom) %>%
  filter(n == max(n)) %>%
  slice(1L) %>%
  pull(kingdom)) %>%

Merge phylum with taxon:

taxon %<>% left_join(phylum, by = "raw_phylum_division")

2.2.11 phylum

taxon %<>% mutate(phylum = raw_phylum_division) 

2.2.12 class

taxon %<>% mutate(class = raw_class) 

2.2.13 genus

taxon %<>% mutate(genus = raw_genus_clean)

2.2.14 specificEpithet

taxon %<>% mutate(specificEpithet = raw_specificEpithet_clean)

2.2.15 infraspecificEpithet

taxon %<>% mutate(infraspecificEpithet = raw_infraspecificEpithet_clean) 

2.2.16 taxonRank

taxonRank is provided by the GBIF nameparser function. However, information for genera, species aggregates and cultivars is not available. We map this information manually.

taxon %<>% mutate(taxonRank = case_when(
  raw_species == "agg." ~ "genus",
  raw_species == "sp." | 
    raw_species == "x" | ~ "genus",
  raw_rankmarker == "sp." ~ "species",
  raw_rankmarker == "infrasp." ~ "infraspecies",
  raw_rankmarker == "cv." ~ "cultivar",
  raw_type == "HYBRID" ~ "hybrid"

2.3 Post-processing

Remove the original columns:

taxon %<>% select(-starts_with("raw_"))

Preview data:

taxon %>% head()

Save to CSV:

write_csv(taxon, dwc_taxon_file, na = "")

3 Create distribution extension

Map the data to Species Distribution.

3.1 Pre-processing

distribution <- raw_data

3.2 Term mapping

3.2.1 taxonID

distribution %<>% mutate(taxonID = raw_taxon_id) 

Information for locationID, locality, countrycode and occurrenceStatus can be found in the columns raw_great_brittain, raw_france, raw_belgium and raw_netherlands, which represent the occurrence for each taxon in each country. For further mapping, we need to integrate the country information in one column country and the occurrence information in a second column:

distribution %<>% gather(country, occurrence, raw_great_britain, raw_france, raw_belgium, raw_netherlands, na.rm = TRUE) 

Clean country names:

distribution %<>% mutate(country = recode(country,
  raw_great_britain  = "Great Britain",
  raw_france         = "France",
  raw_belgium        = "Belgium",
  raw_netherlands    = "The Netherlands"

3.2.2 locationID

distribution %<>% mutate(locationID = case_when(
  country == "Great Britain"   ~ "WGSRPD:GRB",
  country == "France"          ~ "ISO_3166-2:FR",
  country == "Belgium"         ~ "ISO_3166-2:BE",
  country == "The Netherlands" ~ "ISO_3166-2:NL"

3.2.3 locality

distribution %<>% mutate(locality = country) 

3.2.4 countryCode

distribution %<>% mutate(countryCode = case_when(
  country == "Great Britain"   ~ "GB",
  country == "France"          ~ "FR",
  country == "Belgium"         ~ "BE",
  country == "The Netherlands" ~ "NL"

3.2.5 occurrenceStatus

Information for occurrenceStatus is contained in occurrence, which contains the following unique values:

distribution %>% distinct(occurrence)

The interpretation of this content can be found in the main article, section 5B. The interpretation is quite straightforward, but three cases require some explanation:

  • present/extinct: non-native species listed as “present” by one source but as “extinct” by another source
  • present/native: non-native species listed as “present” by one source but as “native” by another source
  • present/native/extinct: not in section 5B, but most probably a mixture of the previous cases.

The information in occurrence can be mapped by combining occurrenceStatus and establishmentMeans:
  data = rbind(
    c("extinct", "introduced", "absent"),
    c("native", "native", "present"),
    c("not confirmed", "introduced", "doubtful"),
    c("present", "introduced", "present"),
    c("present/extinct", "introduced", "doubtful"),
    c("present/native", "doubtful", "present"),
    c("present/not confirmed", "introduced", "doubtful"),
    c("present/native/extinct", "doubtful", "doubtful")
  nrow = 8, ncol = 3, byrow = FALSE,
  dimnames = list(c(1:8), c("occurrence", "establishmentMeans", "occurrenceStatus"))
distribution %<>% mutate(occurrenceStatus = case_when(
  occurrence == "extinct" ~ "absent",
  occurrence == "native" ~ "present",
  occurrence == "not confirmed" ~ "doubtful",
  occurrence == "present" ~ "present", 
  occurrence == "present/extinct" ~ "doubtful",
  occurrence == "present/native" ~ "present",
  occurrence == "present/not confirmed" ~ "doubtful",
  occurrence == "present/native/extinct" ~ "doubtful"

3.2.6 establishmentMeans

distribution %<>% mutate(establishmentMeans = case_when(
  occurrence == "extinct" ~ "introduced",
  occurrence == "native" ~ "native",
  occurrence == "not confirmed" ~ "introduced",
  occurrence == "present" ~ "introduced", 
  occurrence == "present/extinct" ~ "introduced",
  occurrence == "present/native" ~ "doubtful",
  occurrence == "present/not confirmed" ~ "introduced",
  occurrence == "present/native/extinct" ~ "doubtful"

3.2.7 source

distribution %<>% mutate(source = raw_notes) 

3.3 Post-processing

Remove the original columns:

distribution %<>% select(-starts_with("raw_"), -country, -occurrence)

Sort on taxonID:

distribution %<>% arrange(taxonID)

Preview data:

distribution %>% head()

Save to CSV:

write_csv(distribution, dwc_distribution_file, na = "")

4 Create species profile extension

In this extension will express broad habitat characteristics (e.g. isTerrestrial) of the species. Habitat information can be found in raw_environment

species_profile <- raw_data

Similar as for the taxon core, we remove the duplicated taxa:

Remove duplicated rows:

species_profile %<>% slice(-duplicated_taxa)

Show unique values:

species_profile %>%
  distinct(raw_environment) %>%

We map this information to isFreshwater, isTerrestrial, isMarine or a combination of these terms in the species profile extension.

4.1 Term mapping

Map the data to Species Profile.

4.1.1 taxonID

species_profile %<>% mutate(taxonID = raw_taxon_id)

4.1.2 isMarine

species_profile %<>% mutate(isMarine = case_when(
  raw_environment == "freshwater+terrestrial+marine" | 
    raw_environment == "marine" | 
    raw_environment == "marine+freshwater" | 
    raw_environment == "terrestrial+marine" ~ "TRUE",

4.1.3 isFreshwater

species_profile %<>% mutate(isFreshwater = case_when(
  raw_environment == "freshwater" | 
  raw_environment == "freshwater+terrestrial" |
  raw_environment == "freshwater+terrestrial+marine" |
  raw_environment == "marine+freshwater" ~ "TRUE",

4.1.4 isTerrestrial

species_profile %<>% mutate(isTerrestrial = case_when(
  raw_environment == "freshwater+terrestrial" | 
  raw_environment == "freshwater+terrestrial+marine" | 
  raw_environment == "terrestrial" |
  raw_environment == "terrestrial+marine" ~ "TRUE",

Show mapped values:

species_profile %>%
  select(raw_environment, isMarine, isFreshwater, isTerrestrial) %>%
  group_by_all() %>%
  summarize(records = n())

4.2 Post-processing

Remove the original columns:

species_profile %<>% select(-starts_with("raw_"))

Sort on taxonID:

species_profile %<>% arrange(taxonID)

Preview data:

species_profile %>% head()

Save to CSV:

write_csv(species_profile, dwc_profile_file, na = "")